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Lymphoma

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Home > Cancer Treatment > Types Of Cancer > Lymphoma

Overview


What is LYMPHOMA?
Types of LYMPHOMA
LYMPHOMA Risk Factors
Causes of LYMPHOMA
Symptoms of LYMPHOMA
Diagnosis of LYMPHOMA
Treatment of LYMPHOMA in India


WHAT IS LYMPHOMA?

Lymphoma is type of blood Cancer that occurs when lymphocytes white blood cells that help to protect the body from infection and disease begin behaving abnormally. Abnormal may divide faster than cells or they may live longer than they are supposed to.Lymphoma may develop in many parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood or other organ.
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TYPES OF LYMPHOMA

There are two main types of Lymphoma. Hodgkin's Lymphoma, or Hodgkin's disease, all other types of Lymphoma are called non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas.

Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma are both Cancers that start in lymphoid tissue (also called lymphatic tissue). The lymphatic system is important for filtering germs and Cancer cells as well as fluid from the extremities and internal organs. Other types of Cancer, lung or colon Cancers, for example, can develop in other organs and then spread to lymphoid tissue. But these Cancers that can spread to lymph nodes are not Lymphomas. Lymphomas start in the lymphoid tissue and can spread to other organs.

This lymphoid tissue is found in many places throughout the body, including lymph nodes, the thymus (found behind the chest bone and in front of the heart), the spleen (on the left side of the abdomen next to the stomach), the tonsils and adenoids, in the bone marrow, and scattered within other systems such as the digestive and respiratory systems.
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What Causes Lymphoma?

Lymphoma is a form of Cancer that can affect the various sections of the lymphatic system however it is commonly the lymphocyte cells and the lymph glands that are the primary sites of Cancerous growth

The cause of most Lymphomas is not known. Most are probably caused by mutations in certain genes, called oncogenes, which then allow normal cells to divide out of control.
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These factors may increase a person's risk of getting Lymphoma : -

  1. Exposure to chemicals such as certain solvents, pesticides, herbicides, and water contaminated with nitrate.
  2. Taking drugs that suppress the immune system.
  3. Having an autoimmune disease, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  4. Having stomach ulcers or gastritis caused by a kind of bacteria called H. pylori.
  5. Having a weakened immune system. For example, people with AIDS are 50 to100 times more likely to develop Lymphoma than people who are not infected with the AIDS virus.
  6. Various viral infections, for example the Epstein - Barr virus and the Hepatitis C virus. Many of the general population carry the Epstein-Barr virus however it is quite safe while it remains inactive.
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DIAGNOSIS OF LYMPHOMAS

To identify which areas of the body are affected by Lymphoma, the following tests are also commonly used : -


  • blood tests, including complete blood count (CBC).
  • blood chemistry, including tests of liver and kidney function.
  • bone marrow biopsy or aspiration.
  • lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to check for Cancer spread to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
  • ultrasound.
  • computed tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen or sometimes X-rays.
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • bone scan or gallium scan (when a radioactive material is injected into the bloodstream to look for evidence of inflammation or bone tumors).
  • gallium scan to look for tumor or inflammatory cells.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan to look for abnormal cells.
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What are the common symptoms of Lymphoma?

There are a number of common signs and symptoms that are associated with Lymphoma however it must be pointed out that these symptoms can also be caused by numerous, less severe conditions and so anyone suffering with any of the following symptoms should not self-diagnose Lymphoma.

The common symptoms include : -


  • Swollen lymph glands - although these often develop in the neck, armpit and groin areas they can also develop in the chest and these lymph glands can not be felt externally. This means that they can be swollen for some time without causing any external swelling that can be felt with the fingers.
  • Fever and night sweats - because Cancerous cells are present in the body the immune system launches an attack and this causes the body's internal temperature to rise, which is felt as a fever.
  • Unexplained weight loss - Lymphoma can affect any system within the body and occasionally it affects the digestive system which then fails to function at its best. This means that food is not absorbed properly and the body begins to lose weight.
  • Tiredness and fatigue - again this can occur when the digestive system is affected and the impaired food absorption leaves the body with little energy. It also occurs because the body is constantly trying to fight the spread and development of Cancerous cells.
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Treatment of Lymphoma in India

Treatment planning takes into account the type of Lymphoma, the stage of disease, whether it is likely to grow slowly or rapidly, and the general health and age of the patient.

Common treatment options for several types are as follows : -


Low Grade Lymphoma Treatment in India

Low-grade Lymphomas include small lymphocytic, follicular small cleaved, and follicular mixed cell. For low-grade Lymphomas, which usually grow very slowly and cause few symptoms, the doctor may wait until the disease shows signs of spreading before starting treatment.

Although low-grade Lymphomas grow slowly and respond readily to chemotherapy, they almost invariably return and are generally regarded as incurable. The long-term outcome has not been favorably affected by the use of intermediate chemotherapy. Single agent or combination chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be required when the disease progresses or begins to cause symptoms.


Intermediate and High Grade Lymphomas Treatment in India

Intermediate grade includes follicular large cell, diffuse small cleaved, diffuse mixed cell, and diffuse large cell. The chance of recovery and choice of treatment depend on the stage of the Cancer, age, and overall condition. Whatever the origin, the features that best predict the prognosis and guide decisions about therapy are the size, shape and pattern of the lymphocytes as seen microscopically.

Intermediate- and high-grade Lymphomas are curable. Treatment for intermediate- or high-grade Lymphomas usually involves chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy. In addition, surgery may be needed to remove a large tumor.

Combination chemotherapy is almost always necessary for successful treatment. Chemotherapy alone, or abbreviated chemotherapy and radiation, cure 70 to 80 percent of patients with limited (Stages I and II) intermediate-grade Lymphoma. Advanced (Stages III and IV) disease can be eradicated in about 50 percent of patients.



The list of of world class Cancer hospitals in India is as follows : -


Apollo Hospital Chennai Apollo Hospital, Chennai, India
Apollo Specialty Hospital Chennai Apollo Specialty Hospital, Chennai, India
Apollo Hospitals Bangalore Apollo Hospitals, Bangalore, India
Apollo Hospitals Delhi Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India
Fortis Hospital Noida, India Fortis Hospital, Noida, India
Narayana Cancer Hospital, Bangalore, India Narayana Cancer Hospital, Bangalore, India
Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India


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