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Endometrial Cancer

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Overview


What is Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)?
Causes of Endometrial Cancer
Symptoms of Endometrial Cancer
Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer
Treatment of Endometrial Cancer in India


Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)

Uterine (Endometrial) cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer (i.e., cancer that originates in female reproductive system). It develops in the body of the uterus, or womb, which is a hollow organ located in the lower abdomen. The wall of the uterus is comprised of an inner lining (called the endometrium) and an outer layer of muscle tissue (called the myometrium).

Endometrial cancer (Uterine Cancer) is most common after the reproductive years, between the ages of 60 and 70. Endometrial cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer, but there are other cells in the uterus that can become cancerous - such as muscle or myometrial cells.

Endometrial cancer (Uterine Cancer) is often detected at an early stage because it frequently produces vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods or after menopause. If discovered early, this slow-growing cancer is likely to be confined to the uterus. Removing the uterus surgically often eliminates all of the cancer. In fact, stage I Endometrial cancer is successfully treated more than 90 percent of the time.


Endometrial Cancer Treatment India, Endometrial Cancer India

Endometrial Cancer India, Endometrium, Uterus Cancer India

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Causes of Endometrial Cancer (Uterine cancer)

Endometrial Cancer (Uterine cancer) seems linked to several predisposing factors : -

  • abnormal uterine bleeding.
  • diabetes.
  • familial tendency.
  • history of uterine polyps or Endometrial hyperplasia.
  • hypertension.
  • low fertility index and anovulation.
  • nulliparity.
  • obesity.
  • Uninterrupted estrogen stimulation.


In most cases, uterine cancer is an adenocarcinoma that metastasizes late, usually from the endometrium to the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other peritoneal structures. It may spread to distant organs, such as the lungs and the brain, through the blood or the lymphatic system

Uterine cancer usually affects postmenopausal women between ages 50 and 60;
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Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)
  1. The doctor performs a pelvic exam, checking the vagina, uterus, ovaries, bladder, and rectum for Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer). The doctor feels these organs for any lumps or changes in their shape or size. An instrument called a speculum is used to widen the vagina so the doctor can see the upper portion of the vagina and the cervix.
  2. The Pap test is often performed during a pelvic exam Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer). The doctor uses a wooden scraper (spatula) or small brush to collect a sample of cells from the cervix and upper vagina. The cells are then sent to a medical laboratory to be checked for abnormal changes. Because uterine cancer begins inside the uterus, it may not show up on a Pap test, which examines cells from the cervix.
  3. A biopsy is necessary to help the doctor make a diagnosis. A biopsy can usually be done in the doctor's place. In a biopsy, the doctor removes a sample of tissue from the uterine lining. In some cases, a woman may require a dilation and curettage (D&C), which is usually same-day surgery done in a hospital with anesthesia. During a D&C, the opening of the cervix is widened and the doctor scrapes tissue from the lining of the uterus. A pathologist examines the tissue to check for cancer cells, hyperplasia, or other conditions. After a D&C, women may have cramps and vaginal bleeding during healing.

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Common Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer) Symptoms

Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)symptoms are often what prompt women to seek medical attention. Most of the time, the disease remains silent until it has spread to nearby tissues and organs.

  1. abnormal bleeding- heavy bleeding between periods, or heavy bleeding during irregular periods.
  2. pain during sexual intercourse.
  3. pelvic pain or pain in the legs or back.
  4. difficulty urinating or pain during urination.
  5. enlarged uterus found upon medical exam.
  6. vaginal discharge that can be thick or watery; pink or brown; and foul smelling.
  7. unexpected weight loss.

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Medical Treatment of Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)

Surgical Treatment of Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)in India : - Surgery is the best option when Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer) is diagnosed in its very early stages. At this time, the location and the stage of cancer make removal easy. Sometimes patients are treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. There are several surgical procedures that can be used and the choice of which procedure is used depends on the type and stage of the cancer.

Hysterectomy in India : - Almost all women with Endometrial cancer (except those with advanced or stage IV) are treated with a hysterectomy. They may also receive additional treatment. A simple hysterectomy involves the removal of the uterus, making the woman unable to have children. In a procedure known as bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, both ovaries, the fallopian tubes and the uterus are removed. This may be necessary because Endometrial cancer often spreads to the ovaries first.

Radiation therapy in India : - Sometimes radioactive pellets are placed inside the body near the tumor. This is called brachytherapy or internal radiation therapy. Fatigue, upset stomach, diarrhea and nausea are also common complaints of women having radiation therapy.     Read More.

Chemotherapy in India : - uses anticancer drugs to kill the cancer cells. The drugs are given orally or intravenously. They enter the bloodstream and can travel to all parts of the body to kill cancer cells. Generally, a combination of drugs is given since it is more effective than a single drug in treating cancer. Side effects of this treatment include stomach upset, vomiting, appetite loss, hair loss, mouth or vaginal sores, fatigue, menstrual cycle changes and premature menopause. Read More.

Hormonal therapy : -uses drugs like progesterone that will slow the growth of Endometrial cells. These drugs are usually available as pills. This therapy is usually reserved for women with advanced or recurrent disease. Read More.


The list of of world class Cancer hospitals in India is as follows : -


Apollo Hospital Chennai Apollo Hospital, Chennai, India
Apollo Specialty Hospital Chennai Apollo Specialty Hospital, Chennai, India
Apollo Hospitals Bangalore Apollo Hospitals, Bangalore, India
Apollo Hospitals Delhi Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India
Fortis Hospital Noida, India Fortis Hospital, Noida, India
Narayana Cancer Hospital, Bangalore, India Narayana Cancer Hospital, Bangalore, India
Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India


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