India Hospital Tour by We Care India Medical tourism Company Surgery and Treatment in India by We Care India, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore Surgery and Treatment in India at Low Cost JCI / ISO accredited hospital and experienced surgeon advantages
Medical tourism by We Care India for Low Cost Surgery and Treatment  at Hospitals in India your healthcare is now our concerns
Call: +91 9029304141 (10 am. To 8 pm. IST)
Post an EnquiryMedical Quote, Free No Obligation for Medical tourism Patients in India( Preferred )
(Only for international patients seeking treatment in India)
Only in India Hospital Tour
     
Vascular Surgery
 

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

Bookmark and Share Go Back Print This Page Add to Favorites
|
Home > Vascular Surgery > vascular Treatments Available > Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome


The superior vena cava is a large vein located in the upper chest, which collects blood from the head and arms and delivers it back to the right atrium of the heart. If this vein is compressed by outside structures, or if a thrombus or clot develops within it, then return blood flow to the heart is impeded. When blood flow to the heart is restricted, the increased pressure in the veins of the face and arms causes edema (fluid buildup) in these areas. This condition is referred to as superior vena cava syndrome.

Because the superior vena cava, like all veins, has a thin wall (there are no muscles in the walls of a vein as compared to the walls of an artery), and because there is little pressure inside the vein, it can be easily compressed by outside structures.

The superior vena cava lies next to the upper lobe of the right lung and within the mediastinum [the space that contains the central structures of the chest: the heart, the trachea, the esophagus and the great vessels (aorta, vena cava)]. Abnormalities within any of these structures can cause the compression.


Q. What causes superior vena cava syndrome ?

The most common cause of superior vena cava syndrome is cancer. Primary or metastatic cancer in the upper lobe of the right lung can compress the superior vena cava. Lymphoma or other tumors located in the mediastinum can also cause compression of the superior vena cava.

Less often, the superior vena cava can become blocked with a blood clot from within. As more invasive medical procedures are being performed on patients, this cause of superior vena cava syndrome is being seen more frequently. Blood clot (thrombus) formation that causes superior vena cava syndrome is a complication of pacemaker wires, dialysis, and other intravenous catheters that are threaded into the superior vena cava.

Historically, and in other parts of the world, infection (syphilis and tuberculosis) is another cause of superior vena cava syndrome. Sarcoidosis (a disease that results in masses of inflamed tissue) may also cause this syndrome.


Q. What are the symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome ?

Initially, there are few symptoms, however, over time, symptoms of superior vena cava gradually develop. As the compression becomes more severe, the patient may develop shortness of breath and swelling of the arms and face. The symptoms occur because blood cannot return to the heart.

Without adequate blood return, it is hard for the heart to pump newly oxygenated blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body. If blood cannot return to the heart, it starts to back up and causes swelling of the areas where the backup occurs.

Less common symptoms include : -


  • dilation of veins on the skin surface as the body tries to establish new circulatory pathways to bypass the blockage, and a blue tinge to the skin (because the backed up blood doesn't have enough oxygen content)
  • cough
  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain
  • hoarseness.

^ Back to Top

Q. How is superior vena cava syndrome diagnosed ?

  • A plain chest x-ray may show abnormal enlargement of the mediastinum or may reveal a tumor in the lung.
  • Ultrasound may be used to look for blood clots in the arm leading into the chest.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scanning of the chest is most often used to diagnose superior vena cava syndrome. While it will show the blockage and may show a tumor, it will not necessarily diagnose the type of tumor.
  • If a tumor is the cause of the obstruction, often a surgical procedure will be required to obtain a biopsy (a small piece of tissue), to help make the specific diagnosis as to the type of tumor.


Q. How is superior vena cava syndrome treated ?

Rarely does superior vena cava syndrome constitute a medical emergency. The ABCs of care are always a priority, insuring that the Airway is well maintained, Breathing is adequate and the Circulation (blood pressure and heart rate) is stable. The patient may feel more comfortable in an upright position.

Furosemide (Lasix) is a diuretic that will decrease the volume of fluid within the bloodstream. With less pressure pushing against the obstructed superior vena cava, symptoms may be temporarily relieved.

Treatment needs to be directed to the underlying cause. If the cause is a tumor or cancer, the treatment plan will need to be customized to the patient's condition and desires. Options include radiation with or without chemotherapy. Even with aggressive treatment with radiation, only 10 % of lung cancer patients with this syndrome survived to 30 months. Without any treatment, survival may be less than a month.

Steroids [for example, methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol) or prednisone (Deltasone, Liquid Pred)], may be considered to decrease the swelling of a tumor pressing on the superior vena cava and help relieve symptoms.

If the cause of superior vena cava syndrome is a blood clot, anticoagulation with (warfarin) Coumadin may be indicated. The use of thrombolytic drugs [for example, alteplase (Activase, TPA) or TNK] to break up the clot, or placement of a stent to keep the vein open may also be considered.

^ Back to Top

Special consideration

In children, superior vena cava syndrome is most often caused by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The compression of the superior vena cava may be associated with compression of the trachea as well. The trachea (windpipe) in children is relatively narrow, flexible, and soft as compared with an adult.

Airway obstruction may occur and manifest as : -


  • difficulty breathing,
  • stridor (high-pitched, abnormal breathing sounds heard when breathing in)
  • wheezing


Q. What is the prognosis for superior vena cava syndrome ?

The outcome and prognosis is dependent upon the underlying cause of the superior vena cava syndrome.

Superior vena cava syndrome At A Glance :-


  • Superior vena cava syndrome is most often caused by compression of the vein (the superior vena cava, that returns blood from the upper body back to the right atrium of the heart) by tumor.
  • Symptoms include swelling of the face and arms associated with shortness of breath.
  • Treatment is directed at the underlying cause and consists of various measures aimed at decreasing the severity of the obstruction.



The list of of Vascular Surgery Hospitals in India is as follows : -


Apollo Hospitals Bangalore Apollo Hospitals, Bangalore, India
Apollo Hospital Chennai Apollo Hospital, Chennai, India
Apollo Hospitals Hyderabad Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, India
Apollo Hospitals Delhi Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India
Apollo Hospitals Kolkata Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata, India
Apollo Hospital, Goa, India Apollo Hospital, Goa, India
Wockhardt Hospital Bangalore India Wockhardt Hospital, Bangalore India
Wockhardt Hospital hyderabad, India Wockhardt Hospital, hyderabad, India
Wockhardt Hospital Mumbai, India Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai, India
Fortis Hospital, Delhi, India Fortis Hospital, Delhi, India
Fortis Hospital Mohali, India Fortis Hospital, Mohali, India
Fortis Hospital Noida, India Fortis Hospital, Noida, India
Escorts Heart Institute Hospital, Delhi, India Escorts Heart Institute Hospital, Delhi, India
Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, India Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, India
MIOT Hospital, Chennai, India MIOT Hospital, Chennai, India
Narayana Hrudayalaya Heart Hospital, Bangalore, India Narayana Hrudayalaya Heart Hospital, Bangalore, India
Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India
Max Devki Devi Heart and Vascular  hospital,  Delhi, India Max Devki Devi Heart and Vascular hospital, Delhi, India
Max Super Specialty hospital,  Delhi, India Max Super Specialty hospital, Delhi, India
BGS Global Hospital Bangalore, India BGS Global Hospital, Bangalore, India
BGS Global Hospital Chennai, India BGS Global Hospital, Chennai, India
BGS Global Hospital Hyderabad, India BGS Global Hospital, Hyderabad, India


^ Back to Top

For more information, medical assessment and medical quote send your detailed medical history and medical reports
as email attachment to
Email : - info@wecareindia.com
Call: +91 9029304141 (10 am. To 8 pm. IST)
(Only for international patients seeking treatment in India)

 
Send Response
 

Gender : Age :




  

For a detailed evaluation send patientís medical reports / X rays / doctors notes to info@wecareindia.com
 
Patient Story

Patient Storys

Successful heart surgery at We Care India partner hospital allows Robert Clarke to live a normal life despite a rare genetic disorder We Care india helped Robert find best super specialised surgeon for his rare conditions.

Read    : Robert's Story
See All : Patient's Success Stories

Related Link

Group Websites


Find us on

 
Medical Tourism Search Information For Professionals Resources
Hospitals By :

 

 
 
Neurosurgery, Brain Surgery, Epilepsy Surgery, Brain Tumor Surgery in India

SSL Certificate
Neurosurgery, Heart surgery, Brain Surgery , Brain Tumor Surgery in India
   
 

Copyright © 2009 - 2010 We Care India. All Rights Reserved.
Home | About Us | Site Map | Get a Quote | Disclaimer | Advertise With Us | Contact Us

 

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Treatment offers info on Superior Vena Cava India, SVC India, Superior Vena Cava Syndrome India, Vein India, Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Cause India, Superior Vena Cava Obstruction India, Symptoms India, Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Diagnosis India, India Hospital Tour India, Low Cost Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Treatment Hospital India, Cost Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Treatment India, Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Surgery India, SVCS India, Compression Of Superior Vena Cava India, Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Treatment Risk