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Vascular Surgery
 

Renal Vein Thrombosis

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Overview

Renal Vein Thrombosis


Also Known As : -


Kidney Blood Clot or Blockage of Renal Vein


Description


Renal Vein Thrombosis refers to the Blockage of Renal Vein (carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the kidney) by a blood clot (thrombus).


Symptons


  • May be mild or absent
  • Some patients present with shortness of breath due to a clot in the lung (i.e., pulmonary embolus).
  • If it occurs suddenly : -
    1. Back or flank pain (pain in the upper back to the sides)
    2. Hematuria or Blood in the Urine
    3. Low urine volume


Cause


  • Blood clots form when normally liquid blood thickens, or its flow slows down and becomes stagnant.
  • Causes of blood clot formation : -

    1. Trauma to back or abdomen will damage the vein or scar it, and slow the normal blood flow.


    2. Malignant (invasive/cancer) renal tumors such as Renal Cell Carcinomas can invade the vein and cause blockage to blood flow.


    3. External compression of the vein from pregnancy, tumors of the abdomen, or narrowing or strictures of the major vein known as the inferior vena cava.


    4. Nephrotic Syndrome - membranous glomerulonephropathy


  • Dehydration in infants

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How the diagnosis is made ?


  • History of symptoms, illnesses, past history of Thrombosis, allergies, medications, surgeries (especially abdominal or vascular), family history, and habits


  • Medical exam may reveal flank or back pain.


  • Urinalysis under a microscope may reveal red blood cells.


  • Blood tests may reveal high levels of kidney chemical known as LDH enzyme.


  • X-Ray, Ultrasound, MRI or CAT scan are radiographic techniques that can show the size (often enlarged kidney), structure, and clot location in the kidneys.


  • Venography, done by injecting a dye (coloring) into the veins and then X-Raying the area, can show the location of the renal vein narrowing or clotting.




Risk Factors


  • See causes
  • Problems with substances that alter blood viscosity (fluidity) : -
    1. Platelets abnormalities
    2. Increased Fibrinogen levels
    3. Decreased Antithrombin III
    4. Protein C and S deficiency
    5. Anticardiolipin syndrome
    6. Oral contraceptives
    7. Estrogen therapy
    8. Thrombophlebitis migrans


Treatment


  • Hydration with intravenous fluids may help.


  • Thinning the blood first with Heparin (intravenously) and then orally with Warfarin pills, which may need to be continued.


  • Surgical removal of the clot (thrombectomy), removal of the infarcted kidney (nephrectomy), or inserting a flexible tube to reopen the blocked vein (recanalization ) are other options.

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Complication


  • Renal failure can occur.
  • Renal infarction -- the segment of kidney dies
  • Pulmonary Emboli can occur.
  • Death is rare.

Similar Condition


  • Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Herniated Disc
  • Pulmonary Emboli
  • Kidney Stones





The list of of Vascular Surgery Hospitals in India is as follows : -


Apollo Hospitals Bangalore Apollo Hospitals, Bangalore, India
Apollo Hospital Chennai Apollo Hospital, Chennai, India
Apollo Hospitals Hyderabad Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, India
Apollo Hospitals Delhi Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India
Apollo Hospitals Kolkata Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata, India
Apollo Hospital, Goa, India Apollo Hospital, Goa, India
Wockhardt Hospital Bangalore India Wockhardt Hospital, Bangalore India
Wockhardt Hospital hyderabad, India Wockhardt Hospital, hyderabad, India
Wockhardt Hospital Mumbai, India Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai, India
Fortis Hospital, Delhi, India Fortis Hospital, Delhi, India
Fortis Hospital Mohali, India Fortis Hospital, Mohali, India
Fortis Hospital Noida, India Fortis Hospital, Noida, India
Escorts Heart Institute Hospital, Delhi, India Escorts Heart Institute Hospital, Delhi, India
Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, India Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, India
MIOT Hospital, Chennai, India MIOT Hospital, Chennai, India
Narayana Hrudayalaya Heart Hospital, Bangalore, India Narayana Hrudayalaya Heart Hospital, Bangalore, India
Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India
Max Devki Devi Heart and Vascular  hospital,  Delhi, India Max Devki Devi Heart and Vascular hospital, Delhi, India
Max Super Specialty hospital,  Delhi, India Max Super Specialty hospital, Delhi, India
BGS Global Hospital Bangalore, India BGS Global Hospital, Bangalore, India
BGS Global Hospital Chennai, India BGS Global Hospital, Chennai, India
BGS Global Hospital Hyderabad, India BGS Global Hospital, Hyderabad, India


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